European Cannabis Regulation: Current State and Future Evolution

January 2024

In the last decades, the legislative landscape on cannabis has been constantly evolving in Europe. Countries have been going through legal developments with different speeds and directions, and ditto on a regional level. The legal inconsistencies and ambiguities across many European jurisdictions pose challenges to the evolution of the cannabis industry, while it might also open potential future opportunities.

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This report comes in PPT.

Key findings

Clear regulations are the basis for the development of cannabis in Europe

Despite the ambiguities and contradictions that are seen across regional and national legislations, regulatory frameworks are what will determine the path the cannabis industry will follow in Europe.

Cannabis regulation in constant evolution

European countries are in different stages when it comes to developments on cannabis regulation, with some having stronger regulatory frameworks than others. Irrespective of the stage of development, cannabis regulation has been constantly reviewed in most countries.

The balance between making cannabis available to some, and limited to others

The last years have seen the most dynamic legislative changes on cannabis in Europe. Even though cannabis legalisation is usually seen as a progression, there is also the underlying aim of controlling and limiting its exposure to specific groups of people.

The impact of cannabis regulation on other industries

As the cannabis industry evolves in Europe, questions arise on the challenges and opportunities that will emerge in other industries.

Key findings
R egulatory milestones in Europe in the last hundred years
The first regulatory measures on cannabis
Legislative discrepancies across European jurisdictions start to appear
N ew legal measures start to emerge in the new century
The current regulatory status of medical cannabis in Europe
The similarities and differences across the main medical cannabis markets in Europe
Legislative hindrances still present in the largest medical cannabis market in Europe
Private sector leading the development of the UK medical cannabis market
The medical cannabis monopoly in Italy and the struggle to keep up with demand
Regulatory amendments and accelerated development in the Czech Republic
The medical cannabis experiment in France and its obstacles
The current regulatory status of CBD in Europe
The similarities and differences across the main CBD markets in Europe
EU and local regulatory disputes shape the CBD industry in France
The race for market authorisation in the UK
Legislative ambiguities allowing the Belgian market to expand
Evolving regulatory framework in one of the main CBD markets in the region
The volatility of the CBD market in the Czech Republic
The current regulatory status of adult-use cannabis in Europe
The similarities and differences across the main adult-use cannabis markets in Europe
The legalised adult-use cannabis industry kicks off in Europe
Self-cultivation of adult-use cannabis as the first step in Luxembourg
Legalisation process advances in Germany, despite international law hindrances
The challenge of regulating the adult-use cannabis supply chain in the Netherlands
More and more cities continue to adhere to the pilot programme in Switzerland
Smokefree goals amid the emergence of a predominantly smokeable industry
The challenges and opportunities in the payment and services industry
The narrow line between social safety and one’s personal rights
Questions surrounding the insurance sector
The intersection between cannabinoids and other ingredients
The regulatory challenges with emerging cannabinoids
A less concrete regulation that will also guide the future steps taken by cannabis in Europe


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